“A picture is worth a thousand words but a video is worth a million.”
In the realm of visual art, medium of photography has given an immense impact contributing in peace building throughout the history due to its unique traits of grabbing, maintaining, and retaining viewer’s attention. A new medium of Video has emerged that exceeds far beyond the limited capacity of photography. Video with its distinct feature that allows audience to “experience” the depicted stories which creates a subconscious space to delve into the core morals and messages of the content. Such transcended contemplation and emotional shifts may bring opportunities to alter traditional ideas, rules, patterns, and relationships.
Video in the form of art has not only the ability to deliver often isolated stories from the marginalized part of world but also used as a tool to emotionally connect with the audience with visual aesthetic, sound design, and convincing acting. Emotional connections are crucial that allows drastic, often radical, conversion in human cognitions and behaviors. Peace building, which harshly requires creativity and transcendence, needs such conversion to bring about possible solutions. Emotional connection can bridge as an opportunity for therapeutic strategies for traumatized groups and individuals. It can also be used for an attempts of convincing pursuing a space for reconciliation or resilience depending on the situation of the conflicts. Video art can come in many shapes each with different trajectories. These are few of the examples:
Since videos can easily arouse human emotions, it is important to maintain ideologically, politically, and philosophically neutral states.
Even though the internet is an avalanche, full of information and news, it is rather hard to find contents regarding peace building in the daily life, popularly used internet. Also videos for peace building is often viewed overly academic and low quality. Which, in the point of view from professional artists, can point out the lack of care and funding in this particular method of peace building. However, this uncomfortable fact is not only shown in the medium of video but also in the majorities of internet based formats like viral web-site, social media, youtube channel, and etc. Ironically, peace builders and advocates are tacit obliged to keenly follow up with the recent trends and changes of this world to adapt in the fast changing global world we live in today. Giving sophisticated interests with aesthetics and quality of peace building related videos, creating and funding a professional film school specifically focusing on peace building might be one of the solution. Also, coining one big internet format (website) that congregates every single peace building related websites, blogs, videos, forums, and etc. is recommended with proper advertisements. It will alleviate accessibility for normal internet users concentrating the contents to one.
The current Korea-Japan relationship is so bad that it seems like there is no breakthrough. Issues of Japanese military sexual slavery, Dokdo, and the Yasukuni shrine which are the sensitive topics between Korea and Japan are unfolding all at once. The root cause of these problems is the distortion of the Japanese government’s perception of history, and the Japanese Military Sexual Slavery issue best illustrates this cause. The conflict over the Japanese Military Sexual Slavery issue has not ended, even at this point in the 21st century.
Japanese Military Sexual Slavery System
The Japanese Military Sexual Slavery system refers to crimes that the Japanese military committed from the 1930s to 1945 when Japan was in World War II. During that period, the Japanese military systematically set up ‘military comfort stations’ by recruiting women from colonized and occupied countries and forcing them to serve as sex slaves.
During the Shanghai Incident in 1932, rape by Japanese soldiers got more and more severe, and this led to an extreme anti-Japanese sentiment in occupied regions. Also, Japanese soldiers started to get a venereal infection, which interfered with the progress of the war. As a result, the ‘military comfort station’ system was established, and women from colonized regions were drafted against their will. According to the reports on the victims registered with the Korean government, the age of victims ranged from 11 to 27. Most of them were drafted by abduction and job fraud.
The conflict between Korea and Japan over the issue of “Japanese Military Sexual Slavery”
The Korean and Japanese government failed to solve the sexual slavery problem even though prolonged effort over two decades. Postwar compensation has been a diplomatic hot potato among Northeast Asian countries. Specifically, in the negotiation of the Korean-Japanese naturalization of 1965, several problems such as forced laborer, victims of the atomic bomb, sex slavery were unsolved. After sex slave victims testified Japan’s wartime atrocities in 1991, civic groups, journalists, the ministry of foreign affairs, and the public engaged to argue on those complex issues. Due to the failure of solving those complex issues by government and judiciary sectors, the Korean civic groups and sex slave victims appeal to the international court and arena.
The importance of resolving this conflict
The Japanese Military Sexual Slavery is concerned with the largest human rights matter because Military sexual slavery is a war crime and a crime against humanity according to International Law. Also, solving this problem is important for the peace order in Northeast Asia because South Korea and Japan should not only work closely together over the North Korean nuclear and missile issues but also play a central role in establishing peace order in Northeast Asia. Therefore, the restoration of Korea-Japan relations can bring peace to the international community. To resolve this conflict, the two countries should pursue mutual understanding and historical reconciliation based on a clear perception of historical facts. Therefore, educating future generations about the right history can be one important way to resolve this conflict. To restore the honor of the victims and enhance the people’s awareness of history and human rights, the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family opened the ‘e-Museum of the Victims of Japanese Military Sexual Slavery.’ This website can be effectively utilized for history education and peace-building services.
E-Museum of ‘the Victims of Japanese Military Sexual Slavery’
The resource provides various related materials and educational content, including general information to help understand Japanese Military Sexual Slavery. The resource is structured to expand understanding to the international community on the issue without being limited to South Korea by providing materials serviced in English, Japanese and Chinese. Also, this resource can be adapted for all age groups in various countries, but is especially suitable for primary and secondary school students in Korea, as it is designed to be used as a history textbook for them.
*Ways to use this resource: Educating the next generation
One of the ideal ways to integrate this e-Museum into the educational context is through formal education of school institutions. Educational institutions can systematically use this resource for educational purposes. More sophisticated planning will be needed to educate students and people outside of Korea.
To educate Korean students
The resource can be effectively used in strengthening education for elementary, middle and high school students in response to Japan’s distortion of history. Korean website offers educational materials and videos for each age range from elementary school students to high school students.
[To know exactly what Japanese military sexual slavery (is)] is an educational textbook developed by the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family. The textbook, “to know exactly what Japanese military sexual slavery” is a free one that can be downloaded from the online site. The textbook contains major issues to help us understand the whole issue. It consists of six types of powerpoint materials that could conduct in classes according to the level of elementary, middle and high school students, and workbooks that are used for students’ study and activities. The government needs to provide support for the classes and teacher training so that related history education can be actively conducted in front of education sites by utilizing such materials.
1-2 A group special lecture
This resource supports special group lectures related to the issue of ” Japanese Military Sexual Slavery”. Educational institutions can apply for these group special classes to educate students. It is only supported in Korea, and the organization should pay for the preparation of educational venues and the fees for instructors. Educational applications/question can be made by e-mail or phone.
To use this resource to educate international students, a variety of language support and content supplementation are first required. Although English-language sites exist, English-language websites do not have the same educational materials and contents posted on Korean online sites, and there are many services such as group special lectures only supported in Korea. So far, for example, only 10 victims’ testimonies have been translated into the English-language website of the e-history. In addition to Chinese and English, there should be a variety of language support and sufficient and diverse content delivery as much as Korea so that people around the world can view the resources and refer to them in education. It is also necessary to provide appropriate educational materials for international students.
*The following resources can also be used as educational material for international students to understand the problem more easily.
An effective way for educators to use this resource for international students is to suggest a link between the ‘Japanese military sexual slavery ‘ with a country’s current issues. Japanese military sexual slavery issue has many connected themes such as patriarchal system, colonization, imperialism, and misogyny. Also, unfortunately, these problems are still ongoing in so many countries. Therefore, linking ‘Japanese military sexual slavery to the country’s problems will be a good foundation for international students to understand.
For example, in Uganda and Congo, the Japanese military sexual slavery issue can be incorporated into the issue of wartime sexual violence. Also, the State of California proposes to teach Japanese military sexual slavery issue for women’s rights issues, while the San Francisco Board of Education proposes to teach it concerning the issue of women’s rights. Through the correlation between ‘Japanese military sexual slavery ‘ and facing problems, educators can make this resource a very effective educational tool.
Along with the other kinds of peace building theories and practices, arts have been used as one of the ways toward building peace. Arts have been used to serve as a means of making people aware of the impacts of violence, expressing their different cultures, providing opportunities to collaborate interculturally, as well as engaging and healing the traumatic experiences of victims. On the other hand, it also has had potential to serve different objectives. For example, it has been used to re-traumatize victims of conflict in some cases by propaganda.
As more and more people find the importance of arts in conflict resolution and peace building, scholars in fields of conflict and peace are contributing to the development of peace education through arts and are drawing attention to its application on a lot of cases. Now, it is not only used by the artists but also by professional practitioners in conflict resolution to capitalize on arts in building peace.
One of the cases of arts in peace building took place in Nairobi. As a result of an informal settlement of leader in Kibera, the post-election violence happened as a form of aggressive protest. Here, the art was not used as a means of peace building in the first place. People began painting and writing slogans, such as ‘Keep Peace,’ ‘Peace Wanted Alive,’ ‘Keep Peace Fellow Kenyans’ everywhere in the city. They believed that such visual expressions were more powerful than their voices. Then, a coalition government was formed at the end of February 2008, following the protest, which ended the violence. Afterwards, all the paintings and writings were left and made people be traumatized of the experience. Under the lead of artists group called Maasai Mbili in Kibera, a temporary art museum, basing the whole area, was created in the city. People came out and expressed themselves in arts for a few weeks after the end of the violence. It later found out that the drawings of the people were about what they wanted to see or do in the future, their hopes, and wishes. Such a harmonious nature was viewed through paintings and writings in the city, which gave them a feeling of value. It worked as a means of healing.
Likewise, conflicting parties can make use of arts in different ways, and it can be carried on by various groups of people, including artists and conflict resolution practitioners in the field. It is true that arts do not always work successfully in all cases of violence and it is not always applicable as well. However, it does have an impact on conflicting parties, and that it is important to note because not only artists and those professional practitioners can use it. Anyone, whether professional or not, can implement arts in cases of conflict, like the way people of Kenya dealt with violence.
The article focuses on female education program called Girl’s Education South Sudan (GESS) in South Sudan and how it helps to educate girls and other vulnerable classes who don’t have access to proper education. GESS’s two main activities for promoting girl’s education in South Sudan are radio programe and cash transfers. Through these two main activities, the article will address how GESS reduces the gender gap in education and helps children to get away from the post-war trauma and to have the right to receive education.
The purpose of this article is to propose effective way to implement programs to regain the educational rights of the vulnerable classes, especially to the South Sudan’s educational officials, teachers, non-governmental organizations and international organizations, as well as countries at all levels. Furthermore, this article shows the direction of how to recognize the importance of female education in the community, against patriarchal system, early marriage, and gender discrimination.
Importance of female education
South Sudan is a country that newly emerged in 2011 and still struggling through the pain of civil war. Trauma by civil war and the collapse of social infrastructure have threatened South Sudan’s economy and exacerbated poverty. With this humanitarian crisis, education for children in South Sudan is not secured. According to UNICEF, more than 70% of South Sudanese children, or which is 2 million, are out of the school. Education for children between the ages of 6 and 13 is free and compulsory education in the country, but the nation’s severe famine, unstable security, and low-quality education system are depriving children’s educational opportunities. Among them, the most marginalized children in education are girls, with about 70% of the female population being illiterate. Also, it is very difficult for girls to even access education facilities due to poverty, early marriage, and cultural/religious norms. Thus, the enrolment rates of girls are lower than for boys of all grades.
I think education is the most effective way to solve the humanitarian crisis in South Sudan and it helps to overcome trauma caused by past civil wars. I believe that intensively supporting the education system for all children, especially the underprivileged, will be of great help to the future of South Sudan. There is still a widespread social and religious norm in South Sudan that against female education. However, children where born to an educated mother have a 50% higher chance of survival, and girls who attends school have a lower risk of early marriage, early pregnancy, and sex crimes. Also, educated parents are more likely to send their children to school, which could raise the education rate in South Sudan in the future. Therefore, supporting female education contributes to eliminate early marriage and sexual violence in South Sudan. It can also helps to remove socio-cultural barriers of gender towards education and help girls gain that they hae right to participate in the Sudanese community.
GESS program to support girl’s
Recognizing the importance and lack of an educational system for female, Ministry of General Education and Instruction of South Sudan implemented the Girls’ Education South Sudan (GESS) program in 2012. The purpose of the GESS is to provide direct education cash transfer to female students and to seek community change to improve awareness and learning rates for girl’s education.
– MEDIA PROGRAM
As a peace education, GESS uses the radio to promote Social and behavior change towards education. The radio program is a 15-minute-long radio show that addresses the challenges of girls and their families face in school enrollment and learning. The radio interviews the female students, teachers, and parents in seven states. The show tells the anecdotes of the hardships that interviewees face and serves as an educational role model by explaining why education is important to women and suggests how to overcome obstacles. In addition, GESS works with the BBC to produce a radio program called “Our School” and broadcasts on 25 local radio stations and two national stations. Our School mainly emphasizes the advantages that students have when they remain in school and advises parents on solving realistic challenges such as how to get to school safely and how to pay tuition. Moreover, Our School actively communicates with local residents by setting up a section to discuss education directly with listeners over the phone.
– CASH TRANSFER
Another serious education problem in South Sudan is that the student’s school completion rate is very low. Many students, especially girls, quit school mainly for financial reasons, even if they are in the middle of their academic years. Since poverty is a major barrier to education, GESS aims to lower economic barriers for girls to enroll in school and graduate through financial support. Cash transfer is an educational subsidy that is directly paid to girls who enroll in school and attend regularly. All female students at primary and secondary schools who constantly attend school are eligible for cash transfers at least once a year. In 2018, about 200,000 girls benefited from cash transfer. According to a survey conducted by Forcier Consulting in September 2015, GESS’s cash transfer program provided the full amount of cash directly to the recipient student and, in almost all cases, the recipient girl used the money for educational support items such as textbook and notes. In addition, this program helped girls pay for their registration fees.
The greatest achievement of the GESS’s cash transfer program is the establishment of a mechanism to deliver government funds to elementary schools in areas occupied by anti-government militants. South Sudan’s education ministry had no clear way to deliver government funds to anti-government elementary schools. However, cooperation with the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the South Sudanese government, GESS has succeeded in providing government aid to elementary schools in anti-government areas as well as delivering UK AID donations. With successful cooperation with the government and foreign aid foundations, GESS is currently engaged in cash transfer activities at more than 3,400 schools.
Ways to use this resourceeffectively
believe that radio programs and cash transfers are the most familiar and
effective way to implement peace education for girls in a patriarchal society
where awareness of education is low and early marriage is frequent. A more
effective way for female students and citizens to use radio and cash transfer
is for the government and educators to promote GESS and complement radio and
cash transfer programs by using the following methods:
–Continuous partnership with non-profit organizations like GESS
In order to change the negative perception of female education, the central government and local governments should actively cooperate to implement policies on girls’ education. However, currently education policies in South Sudan are mainly focused on men. The quality of education in schools is also low due to frequent threats from militant groups and post-war trauma. In particular, girls living in rural areas are more isolated from education than any other class in South Sudan. Under these circumstances, it is difficult for the South Sudanese government alone to establish systematic female education policies. Therefore, the government should actively cooperate with non-profit organizations such as GESS to help female students attend school and increase the school graduation rate by directly paying cash to female students living in conflict or poverty areas. The current government is a partner with GESS, but it is time for the nation to establish a solid relationship with organizations that actively implement education programs nationwide.
–Regular education conference
There is a limitation in GESS’s radio program since students and parents who live in poor areas don’t have access to listen to the show. Therefore, educators should hold regular education conferences from region to region so that all classes can access the content covered by radio programs. Participants at the conference are students, parents, teachers, and government education officials. Teachers and education officials at elementary, middle and high schools should systematically explain the importance of education, especially for girls. The conference should also include an explanation of how the tuition used, school curriculum, and meal system in school. Education conferences must be held at least once a semester, and after the conference, educators and education officials must take question and answer sessions to communicate with citizens.
In South Sudan, where the education system has been disrupted by a long civil war, GESS provides information on education through the media and gradually change the perception of women’s education in a patriarchal society. GESS also helps to increase the education rate of girls in the poor and vulnerable class through financial support. Furthermore, cash transfer helps to manage the school facilities and improve the quality of education by delivering funds to schools. In other words, GESS’s media program and cash transfer especially fits well with elementary and secondary girls in South Sudan, who have low access to education.
Through these programs, female student will be able to vividly plan and build their own future that was unimaginable in the past. Education allows girls to move away from a patriarchal society, and take their own leading thoughts and actions. Therefore, these two resources, which help directly receive education, can be used to develop the power to enable marginalized women to lead change in the community and further within the country.
The two main stakeholders in this project are the South Sudanese government and educators. Through this article, they can undestand how female students receive education and what kinds of major educational activities being conducted in South Sudan. Through this information, they will be able to establish policies to help and improve GESS’s programs. Also, through the Peace Learner website, they can learn the types of peace education forms, which can be used as a role model for improving education in South Sudan.
You can share additional questions on this topic with your colleagues. Here are some questions I recommend…
1) How does sexism in South Sudan affect education?
2) What do you think is the most effective way to solve the education gap between boys and girls?
3) What is the most urgent issue to address in order to improve South Sudan’s low-quality education?
The role of education programs is perhaps important in conflict-affected countries because it prioritizes a concern for the protection of children and a response to the negative impacts of conflict on their education.
The Arab-Israeli conflict is one of the world’s longest-running and most controversial conflicts. This conflict over last several decades has been about theological differences between Judaism and Islam. The complex hostility between the two groups dates all the way back to ancient times as Israel’s origins can be traced back to Abraham, who is considered the father of both Judaism and Islam. However, tensions between Jews and Arab Muslims have been escalated by the Balfour Declaration which was the public statement by the British government announcing support for the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. In 1948, Israel was officially declared an independent state, then it marked the beginning of more violence with the Arabs, which led to numerous wars since the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
Israel and Arabs have little contact or opportunity for positive interaction. This lack of contact often leads to having a tendency to develop negative perceptions of each other. Therefore, it is crucial to help children to engage in peace education programming that provides an opportunity to narrow gap based on different cultures, religions, and backgrounds.
The Peres Center for Peace and Innovation, which is the non-profit and non-government organization, has developed a wide range of educational methods that use sports to bring Jewish and Arab, Israeli and Palestine boys and girls together to overcome fears and break down emotional barriers. The Center has implemented The Twinned Peace Sport Schools (TPSS), which is supported by FIFA, in the Israeli communities as well as in various other locations.
TPSS is the longest-running sport project in the region and has a purpose on brining young generations together in an entertaining environment based on the principles of equality, diversity and respect. This program takes part in the following activities: 1) Weekly training and peace education: Approximately 40 Jewish children and 40 Arab children meet separately twice a week for training focused on soccer skills and peace education. The activities are structured around the ‘Peace Education through Sport Curriculum’ developed by the Peres Center for Peace. 2) Joint training and cultural activities: Approximately five times per year, both children groups will meet for joint activities. They play soccer in mixed team, which helps them develop values of teamwork, equality and mutual understanding. 3) Inter-language learning: Based on lesson plans designed, the children begin to learn their counterparts’ language. 4) Annual tournament: The high point of the year is the “Mini Mondial” which unites all participants of the wider TPSS project. This has to date exhibition matches with teams of Israeli Jewish and Arab mayors, international ambassadors, and Israeli Jewish and Arab premier league soccer players, coming together and playing with the children.
This program combines leadership training, “Playing Fair, Leading Peace,” for university students with peace education activities to enhance the impact of sports initiatives. Israelis and Palestinian young leaders are recruited and given training in the proven methods of fostering peace through sports, leadership and dialogue. The students then get hands-on experience, going in to schools and working with Jewish and Arab schoolchildren, who in their “twinned” groups.
The two stakeholders that would be interested in this article would be non-profit organizations and college students. Nonprofit organizations working for the rights of children in the Middle East can use this source when they consider initiating education projects for children, or nonprofits sports organizations can join to the peace education program, adopting curriculums structured by the Peres Center for Peace. College students also could use this source as an example for their studies related to Middle East or education when researching about educational methods applicable to attempts for reconciliation between Jews and Arabs.
You may use this source more effectively if you visit the Peres Center for Peace’s website, there are other projects you can see that the Center implements. They have developed programs in sports, cultivation of leadership and entrepreneurship, and environment. Furthermore, this resource gives many opportunities for those who are interested in communication, education, and peacebuilding, and also to get involved in projects to become constructive and influential leaders, promoting intercultural dialogue in diverse ways.
Abstract Nigeria is Africa’s Midwest region where made up of a complex race of more than 300 tribes. Historically, Nigeria is full of conflicts, including life threatening, others minor and pedestrian. There has been constant conflict among regional tribes due to differences in the level of development , ethnicity and religion. Conflict management requires the application of resolution techniques to regulate these conflicts; and peace-building seeks to develop constructive relationships across ethnic and national boundaries to resolve these deadly conflicts. The government in Nigeria must address the root causes of these conflicts.
The ethnic-religious conflict in Nigeria is divided into southern, middle, and northern regional conflicts depending on the center of the occurrence, and the conflict also varies with regions. In the case of conflicts in the central part of the country, the conflict has become even worse as it overlaps economic issues with the chronic and daily pattern of ethnic-religious conflicts in Nigeria.Conflicts between ethnic-religious communities usually appear in an intensified form. ( Inequality as the northern region lags far behind the southern region, and land disputes among nomadic Muslims and agrarian Christians are the main reasons behind the deepening of the Sino-religious conflict.)In the north, anger over poverty and discrimination combined with the political ideology of Islam, giving birth to Boko Haram, an Islamic political militant group. The Nigerian government claims to have effectively eradicated Boko Haram in December 2015, but fighting has continued in the northeastern region.In the southern part of the country, the central government, led by the northern Muslim-born president, and local armed rebels are confronting each other.
Path to peace Peace building can come in form of direct effort which mainly focuses intentionally on the factors driving or mitigating conflict, in an attempt to reduce structural or direct violence. The Kroc Institute indicates peace-building as “the development of constructive personal, group, and political relationships across ethnic, religious, class, national, and racial boundaries … to resolve injustice in nonviolent ways and to transform the structural conditions that generate deadly conflict”. The U.S. Government and U.S. Embassy in Nigeria work very closely with a number of organizations in Nigeria to protect people and to have respect for human rights. They work with the Plateau Peace Building Agency, by giving grants for the agency’s ongoing efforts to work for peace and dialogue in this embattled state.
The war in Sri Lanka has ended but conflict and trauma has not. Many communities are left with war scars — physically and emotionally. But how can we rebuild a country that are broken up by ethnicities, religions and trust issues?
It begins with the youth. The younger generation is not responsible for the past, but they have been greatly affected by it and they also have the ability to heal its effects. Historically, tensions within Sri Lanka were primarily between ethnic differences: the Sinhalese Majority and Tamil Minority. Now a days tensions have shifted towards religious differences. But in order to prevent the same-types of conflict from re-occurring in the future, we must practice both conflict prevention and peace-building practices.
Personally, I believe that rebuilding peace between communities is possible through an educational approach amongst the youth. I would like to propose that schools have some kind of textbook reformation with classes that talk about the recent civil war, even if it may be a little uncomfortable. This aids the conflict prevention aspect. There needs to be an open-space for discussion and understanding why it happened. Focusing less on pointing fingers and more on what caused it. If we can learn to approach ethnic and religious differences, we can learn to be more culturally sensitive and understanding towards each other which prevent arising conflict in the near-future. Religion classes could also help children learn more about each other’s cultural beliefs in a respective manner, that shows there is no right or wrong. There is only difference, but difference is okay and it is possible to live in harmony through mutual respect and acknowledgement.
As for peace-building practices, the funding of extra-curriculars would be very beneficial in improving relations amongst those of different ethnicities and beliefs. This doesn’t have to be limited to only children, but programs should be established for individuals of all ages within the communities. Many children affected by the civil war lost their opportunity for education and employment (Generations For Peace, 2015). Therefore, this would be a great way to help them reintegrate into community building practices, that they were never able to experience due to the war.
The establishment of a community center could help communities be brought together through group outings, sports, art classes, choir groups, etc. For instance, Generations For Peace created a Sports For Peace “programme for youth in.. the worst-affected districts [of] the war” that aimed to “build relationships and encourage interactions among youth of different ethnicities” (Generations For Peace, 2015). Students would have positive experiences with other cultures, contributing to the peace-building of communities in Sri Lanka.
As for stakeholders, I would like to reach out to some non-profit groups that are interested in developing education for World Peace purposes. I would also like to personally reach out to my CONF340 Professor Romano, whom have had much experiences in the Conflict Resolution Industry for guidance and his opinion on the matter.
By creating a strong foundation, it will take some time but Sri Lanka can slow build itself up into becoming a strongly diverse and unified country. We cannot erase the past, but we can build a new future together and that begins with the youth.